Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Research Scientist
Martin Maldovan Ph.D.
Ph.D. Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT
M.S. Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT
B.S. Physics, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
77 Massachusetts Av. 13-5014 Cambridge, MA 02139
Phone: (617) 233-3037 E-mail: maldovan(AT)mit.edu
Latest: A Novel Material for Heat Management
M. Maldovan, Physical Review Letters, 110, 025902 (2013) download pdf
Featured in MIT News: http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2013/how-to-treat-heat-like-light-0111.html
MIT Front page: Monday, January 14, 2013 http://web.mit.edu/site/spotlight/3608
Materials Research Society: Materials 360
The Economist: Science and Technology
AZoNano: Interview Series http://www.azonano.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=3187
Currently looking for a faculty/industry research position
- Nanoscale Science and Technology.
- Materials Science and Physics.
- Heat, Mass, and Electronic Transfer.
- Energy, Electronic, Biomaterials.
- Photonic and Phononic Materials.
List of Publications
Nanoscale Heat, Mass, and Electronic Transfer
Modern experimental technologies enable the fabrication of complex nanostructures such as nanofilms,
multilayers, superlattices, nanowires/tubes, nanoparticle composites, quantum dots, micro/nanoelectronic
devices and MEMS. In many of the applications for which these materials are designed, the control
of heat, mass, or electronic transfer is critical for the resultant energy efficiency of the device. For example,
materials with low thermal conductivities are needed to increase the efficiency of energy conversion
materials such as thermoelectrics (which can convert waste heat into electricity) or to fabricate highly
efficient thermal insulators (which can increase building energy efficiency for heating and cooling). In
contrast, materials with high thermal conductivities are necessary to rapidly dissipate heat in
increasingly dense electronic devices such as computer microprocessors or semiconductor lasers. A precise
simultaneous control of mass and charge transport is also critical in the development of alternative power
sources such as highly-efficient fuel cells (which can directly convert chemical to electrical energy).
Understanding, predicting, and controlling heat, mass, and electronic transport in nanostructured materials
is thus crucial for the development of the new generation of energy efficient nanoscale devices in science
M. Maldovan, "Narrow Low-Frequency Spectrum and Heat Management by Thermocrystals" Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 025902 (2013).
M. Maldovan, "Transition Between Ballistic and Diffusive Heat Transport Regimes in Silicon Materials" Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 113110 (2012).
M. Maldovan, "Thermal Conductivity of Semiconductor Nanowires from Micro to Nano Length Scales" J. Appl. Phys. 111, 024311 (2012).
M. Maldovan, "Thermal Energy Transport Model for Macro-to-Nanograin Polycrystalline Semiconductors" J. Appl. Phys. 110, 114310 (2011).
M. Maldovan, "Micro to Nanoscale Thermal Energy Conduction in Semiconductor Thin Films" J. Appl. Phys.110, 034308 (2011).
Photonic crystals are periodic structures designed to control the propagation of electromagnetic waves. These periodic structures are made of two materials with different dielectric constants where one of the materials has a high dielectric constant and the other has a low dielectric constant. One of the basic properties exhibited by photonic crystals is that electromagnetic waves having frequencies within a specific range are not allowed to propagate within the periodic structure. This range of forbidden frequencies is called a photonic band gap. The origin of photonic band gaps lies in the multiple reflections of a propagating wave at the interfaces between different materials. The existence of photonic gaps creates interesting physical phenomena that can help us to control the propagation of electromagnetic waves. For example, photonic crystals can be used as high reflective mirrors and filters but also for wave guiding, light localization, and controlling light in planar optical chips. From a basic point of view, the reason behind the existence of large and complete photonic band gaps in different structures with different symmetries is a current area of research. (more)
Nature Materials 3, 593 (2004), Nature Materials 2, 664 (2003)
Phononic crystals are periodic structures made of two materials with different mechanical properties, which are used to control the propagation of mechanical waves. As in the case of photonic crystals, the basic property of phononic crystals is that mechanical waves, having frequencies within a specific range, are not allowed to propagate within the periodic structure. This range of forbidden frequencies is called a phononic band gap. In contrast to photonic crystals, the propagation mechanisms of mechanical waves depend on the type of material (i.e. solid or fluid) within which the waves propagate. Mechanical vibrations propagating in solid materials are usually called elastic waves and are composed of transverse (shear) + longitudinal (compression) waves. On the other hand, mechanical vibrations propagating in fluid materials (i.e. gases or liquids) are usually called acoustic waves and are made of longitudinal waves. The existence and properties of phononic band gaps thus depends on the type of the underlying periodic material where the mechanical waves propagate.
Nature Materials 5, 773 (2006), Physical Review Letters 94, 115501(2005)
Simultaneous Localization of Light and Sound (Phoxonic Crystals/Optomechanical Crystals)
The localization of light by purposely introducing defects in a otherwise perfectly periodic dielectric structure is a physical phenomenon that is not exclusive to electromagnetic waves. In fact, many of the physical effects obtained for electromagnetic waves by using photonic crystals can similarly be obtained for mechanical waves by using phononic crystals. An interesting and novel research area is to design periodic structures that can localize both light and sound in the same spatial region at the same time. This can enhance the interaction between photons and phonons and can create non-conventional acoustic-optical devices. In order to obtain the simultaneous localization of light and sound in the same area, it is essential to create periodic structures possessing both complete photonic and phononic band gaps. This "blind and deaf" structures (also known as Phoxonic Crystals or Optomechanical Crystals) can integrate the simultaneous management of electromagnetic and mechanical waves and also enhance their mutual interaction.
Applied Physics Letters 88, 251907 (2006)
Mechanical Properties of Microframes fabricated by Interference Lithography
The ubiquity of multifunctional cellular solids in both nature and engineered structures is a clear indication of the importance of such materials. Cellular solids occur for example as bones and exoskeletons, catalytic support material, optimized composites, scaffolds for cell growth and trusses. The mechanical behavior of these structures is the most common critical functionality across all these examples. The establishment of the relationship between topology and performance has been identified as representing the research frontier. Beyond this lies the challenge of the development of a fabrication technique that will afford control over topology with the required specificity. At submicron length scales this is an even greater challenge. The prospect of making such complex 3D structures at the submicron scale is an exciting one, since structures at these length scales allow access to novel length scale dependent mechanical properties. It is thus important to establish the effective elastic properties of periodic bicontinuous solid/air structures that can be fabricated at small length scales by interference lithography and compare their properties with standard models.
Advanced Materials 19, 3809 (2007)
Book: Periodic Materials and Interference Lithography for Photonics, Phononics, and Mechanics
by Martin Maldovan and Edwin L. Thomas
Periodic materials have been demonstrated to have unique physical properties due to their singular interaction with waves. In recent years, the discovery of an experimental technique called interference lithography, which can create periodic materials at very small length scales, had a strong impact on the way we think about these materials. In order to rationally design and fabricate periodic materials by interference lithography, it is useful to perceive a periodic material as a sum of its Fourier series components. This book studies the correlation between the analytical description of periodic materials by Fourier series and the experimental realization of these materials by interference lithography. We believe this mutual relation will have a deep influence in the development of new periodic materials since the convergence of theoretical and experimental methods allows for the theoretical design of structured materials that can be experimentally realized. The book also attempts to comprehensively study the applications of periodic materials. For example, in spite of their strong similarities, to date, photonic and phononic crystals have been studied separately. We try to integrate these two research areas by proposing photonic-phononic crystals that can combine the physical properties of these materials and may even give rise to unique acousto-optical applications. The ubiquity of periodic materials in science and technology can be demonstrated by the large number of physical processes they can control. Several of these practical applications for periodic materials are discussed in this book, which include the control of electromagnetic and elastic waves, mechanics, fluids, and heat. The broad range of applications demonstrates the multifunctional character of periodic materials and the strong impact they can have if fabricated at small length scales.