This is libc.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.2 from libc.texinfo.
INFO-DIR-SECTION GNU libraries
START-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
* Libc: (libc). C library.
END-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
This file documents the GNU C library.
This is Edition 0.10, last updated 2001-07-06, of `The GNU C Library
Reference Manual', for Version 2.3.x.
Copyright (C) 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002
Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
Invariant Sections being "Free Software Needs Free Documentation" and
"GNU Lesser General Public License", the Front-Cover texts being (a)
(see below), and with the Back-Cover Texts being (b) (see below). A
copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free
Documentation License".
(a) The FSF's Front-Cover Text is:
A GNU Manual
(b) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is:
You have freedom to copy and modify this GNU Manual, like GNU
software. Copies published by the Free Software Foundation raise
funds for GNU development.
File: libc.info, Node: setlogmask, Next: Syslog Example, Prev: closelog, Up: Submitting Syslog Messages
setlogmask
----------
The symbols referred to in this section are declared in the file
`syslog.h'.
- Function: int setlogmask (int MASK)
`setlogmask' sets a mask (the "logmask") that determines which
future `syslog' calls shall be ignored. If a program has not
called `setlogmask', `syslog' doesn't ignore any calls. You can
use `setlogmask' to specify that messages of particular priorities
shall be ignored in the future.
A `setlogmask' call overrides any previous `setlogmask' call.
Note that the logmask exists entirely independently of opening and
closing of Syslog connections.
Setting the logmask has a similar effect to, but is not the same
as, configuring Syslog. The Syslog configuration may cause Syslog
to discard certain messages it receives, but the logmask causes
certain messages never to get submitted to Syslog in the first
place.
MASK is a bit string with one bit corresponding to each of the
possible message priorities. If the bit is on, `syslog' handles
messages of that priority normally. If it is off, `syslog'
discards messages of that priority. Use the message priority
macros described in *Note syslog; vsyslog:: and the `LOG_MASK' to
construct an appropriate MASK value, as in this example:
LOG_MASK(LOG_EMERG) | LOG_MASK(LOG_ERROR)
or
~(LOG_MASK(LOG_INFO))
There is also a `LOG_UPTO' macro, which generates a mask with the
bits on for a certain priority and all priorities above it:
LOG_UPTO(LOG_ERROR)
The unfortunate naming of the macro is due to the fact that
internally, higher numbers are used for lower message priorities.
File: libc.info, Node: Syslog Example, Prev: setlogmask, Up: Submitting Syslog Messages
Syslog Example
--------------
Here is an example of `openlog', `syslog', and `closelog':
This example sets the logmask so that debug and informational
messages get discarded without ever reaching Syslog. So the second
`syslog' in the example does nothing.
#include
setlogmask (LOG_UPTO (LOG_NOTICE));
openlog ("exampleprog", LOG_CONS | LOG_PID | LOG_NDELAY, LOG_LOCAL1);
syslog (LOG_NOTICE, "Program started by User %d", getuid ());
syslog (LOG_INFO, "A tree falls in a forest");
closelog ();
File: libc.info, Node: Mathematics, Next: Arithmetic, Prev: Syslog, Up: Top
Mathematics
***********
This chapter contains information about functions for performing
mathematical computations, such as trigonometric functions. Most of
these functions have prototypes declared in the header file `math.h'.
The complex-valued functions are defined in `complex.h'.
All mathematical functions which take a floating-point argument have
three variants, one each for `double', `float', and `long double'
arguments. The `double' versions are mostly defined in ISO C89. The
`float' and `long double' versions are from the numeric extensions to C
included in ISO C99.
Which of the three versions of a function should be used depends on
the situation. For most calculations, the `float' functions are the
fastest. On the other hand, the `long double' functions have the
highest precision. `double' is somewhere in between. It is usually
wise to pick the narrowest type that can accommodate your data. Not
all machines have a distinct `long double' type; it may be the same as
`double'.
* Menu:
* Mathematical Constants:: Precise numeric values for often-used
constants.
* Trig Functions:: Sine, cosine, tangent, and friends.
* Inverse Trig Functions:: Arcsine, arccosine, etc.
* Exponents and Logarithms:: Also pow and sqrt.
* Hyperbolic Functions:: sinh, cosh, tanh, etc.
* Special Functions:: Bessel, gamma, erf.
* Errors in Math Functions:: Known Maximum Errors in Math Functions.
* Pseudo-Random Numbers:: Functions for generating pseudo-random
numbers.
* FP Function Optimizations:: Fast code or small code.
File: libc.info, Node: Mathematical Constants, Next: Trig Functions, Up: Mathematics
Predefined Mathematical Constants
=================================
The header `math.h' defines several useful mathematical constants.
All values are defined as preprocessor macros starting with `M_'. The
values provided are:
`M_E'
The base of natural logarithms.
`M_LOG2E'
The logarithm to base `2' of `M_E'.
`M_LOG10E'
The logarithm to base `10' of `M_E'.
`M_LN2'
The natural logarithm of `2'.
`M_LN10'
The natural logarithm of `10'.
`M_PI'
Pi, the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter.
`M_PI_2'
Pi divided by two.
`M_PI_4'
Pi divided by four.
`M_1_PI'
The reciprocal of pi (1/pi)
`M_2_PI'
Two times the reciprocal of pi.
`M_2_SQRTPI'
Two times the reciprocal of the square root of pi.
`M_SQRT2'
The square root of two.
`M_SQRT1_2'
The reciprocal of the square root of two (also the square root of
1/2).
These constants come from the Unix98 standard and were also
available in 4.4BSD; therefore they are only defined if `_BSD_SOURCE' or
`_XOPEN_SOURCE=500', or a more general feature select macro, is
defined. The default set of features includes these constants. *Note
Feature Test Macros::.
All values are of type `double'. As an extension, the GNU C library
also defines these constants with type `long double'. The `long
double' macros have a lowercase `l' appended to their names: `M_El',
`M_PIl', and so forth. These are only available if `_GNU_SOURCE' is
defined.
_Note:_ Some programs use a constant named `PI' which has the same
value as `M_PI'. This constant is not standard; it may have appeared
in some old AT&T headers, and is mentioned in Stroustrup's book on C++.
It infringes on the user's name space, so the GNU C library does not
define it. Fixing programs written to expect it is simple: replace
`PI' with `M_PI' throughout, or put `-DPI=M_PI' on the compiler command
line.
File: libc.info, Node: Trig Functions, Next: Inverse Trig Functions, Prev: Mathematical Constants, Up: Mathematics
Trigonometric Functions
=======================
These are the familiar `sin', `cos', and `tan' functions. The
arguments to all of these functions are in units of radians; recall
that pi radians equals 180 degrees.
The math library normally defines `M_PI' to a `double' approximation
of pi. If strict ISO and/or POSIX compliance are requested this
constant is not defined, but you can easily define it yourself:
#define M_PI 3.14159265358979323846264338327
You can also compute the value of pi with the expression `acos (-1.0)'.
- Function: double sin (double X)
- Function: float sinf (float X)
- Function: long double sinl (long double X)
These functions return the sine of X, where X is given in radians.
The return value is in the range `-1' to `1'.
- Function: double cos (double X)
- Function: float cosf (float X)
- Function: long double cosl (long double X)
These functions return the cosine of X, where X is given in
radians. The return value is in the range `-1' to `1'.
- Function: double tan (double X)
- Function: float tanf (float X)
- Function: long double tanl (long double X)
These functions return the tangent of X, where X is given in
radians.
Mathematically, the tangent function has singularities at odd
multiples of pi/2. If the argument X is too close to one of these
singularities, `tan' will signal overflow.
In many applications where `sin' and `cos' are used, the sine and
cosine of the same angle are needed at the same time. It is more
efficient to compute them simultaneously, so the library provides a
function to do that.
- Function: void sincos (double X, double *SINX, double *COSX)
- Function: void sincosf (float X, float *SINX, float *COSX)
- Function: void sincosl (long double X, long double *SINX, long
double *COSX)
These functions return the sine of X in `*SINX' and the cosine of
X in `*COS', where X is given in radians. Both values, `*SINX'
and `*COSX', are in the range of `-1' to `1'.
This function is a GNU extension. Portable programs should be
prepared to cope with its absence.
ISO C99 defines variants of the trig functions which work on complex
numbers. The GNU C library provides these functions, but they are only
useful if your compiler supports the new complex types defined by the
standard. (As of this writing GCC supports complex numbers, but there
are bugs in the implementation.)
- Function: complex double csin (complex double Z)
- Function: complex float csinf (complex float Z)
- Function: complex long double csinl (complex long double Z)
These functions return the complex sine of Z. The mathematical
definition of the complex sine is
sin (z) = 1/(2*i) * (exp (z*i) - exp (-z*i)).
- Function: complex double ccos (complex double Z)
- Function: complex float ccosf (complex float Z)
- Function: complex long double ccosl (complex long double Z)
These functions return the complex cosine of Z. The mathematical
definition of the complex cosine is
cos (z) = 1/2 * (exp (z*i) + exp (-z*i))
- Function: complex double ctan (complex double Z)
- Function: complex float ctanf (complex float Z)
- Function: complex long double ctanl (complex long double Z)
These functions return the complex tangent of Z. The mathematical
definition of the complex tangent is
tan (z) = -i * (exp (z*i) - exp (-z*i)) / (exp (z*i) + exp (-z*i))
The complex tangent has poles at pi/2 + 2n, where n is an integer.
`ctan' may signal overflow if Z is too close to a pole.
File: libc.info, Node: Inverse Trig Functions, Next: Exponents and Logarithms, Prev: Trig Functions, Up: Mathematics
Inverse Trigonometric Functions
===============================
These are the usual arc sine, arc cosine and arc tangent functions,
which are the inverses of the sine, cosine and tangent functions
respectively.
- Function: double asin (double X)
- Function: float asinf (float X)
- Function: long double asinl (long double X)
These functions compute the arc sine of X--that is, the value whose
sine is X. The value is in units of radians. Mathematically,
there are infinitely many such values; the one actually returned
is the one between `-pi/2' and `pi/2' (inclusive).
The arc sine function is defined mathematically only over the
domain `-1' to `1'. If X is outside the domain, `asin' signals a
domain error.
- Function: double acos (double X)
- Function: float acosf (float X)
- Function: long double acosl (long double X)
These functions compute the arc cosine of X--that is, the value
whose cosine is X. The value is in units of radians.
Mathematically, there are infinitely many such values; the one
actually returned is the one between `0' and `pi' (inclusive).
The arc cosine function is defined mathematically only over the
domain `-1' to `1'. If X is outside the domain, `acos' signals a
domain error.
- Function: double atan (double X)
- Function: float atanf (float X)
- Function: long double atanl (long double X)
These functions compute the arc tangent of X--that is, the value
whose tangent is X. The value is in units of radians.
Mathematically, there are infinitely many such values; the one
actually returned is the one between `-pi/2' and `pi/2'
(inclusive).
- Function: double atan2 (double Y, double X)
- Function: float atan2f (float Y, float X)
- Function: long double atan2l (long double Y, long double X)
This function computes the arc tangent of Y/X, but the signs of
both arguments are used to determine the quadrant of the result,
and X is permitted to be zero. The return value is given in
radians and is in the range `-pi' to `pi', inclusive.
If X and Y are coordinates of a point in the plane, `atan2'
returns the signed angle between the line from the origin to that
point and the x-axis. Thus, `atan2' is useful for converting
Cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates. (To compute the
radial coordinate, use `hypot'; see *Note Exponents and
Logarithms::.)
If both X and Y are zero, `atan2' returns zero.
ISO C99 defines complex versions of the inverse trig functions.
- Function: complex double casin (complex double Z)
- Function: complex float casinf (complex float Z)
- Function: complex long double casinl (complex long double Z)
These functions compute the complex arc sine of Z--that is, the
value whose sine is Z. The value returned is in radians.
Unlike the real-valued functions, `casin' is defined for all
values of Z.
- Function: complex double cacos (complex double Z)
- Function: complex float cacosf (complex float Z)
- Function: complex long double cacosl (complex long double Z)
These functions compute the complex arc cosine of Z--that is, the
value whose cosine is Z. The value returned is in radians.
Unlike the real-valued functions, `cacos' is defined for all
values of Z.
- Function: complex double catan (complex double Z)
- Function: complex float catanf (complex float Z)
- Function: complex long double catanl (complex long double Z)
These functions compute the complex arc tangent of Z--that is, the
value whose tangent is Z. The value is in units of radians.
File: libc.info, Node: Exponents and Logarithms, Next: Hyperbolic Functions, Prev: Inverse Trig Functions, Up: Mathematics
Exponentiation and Logarithms
=============================
- Function: double exp (double X)
- Function: float expf (float X)
- Function: long double expl (long double X)
These functions compute `e' (the base of natural logarithms) raised
to the power X.
If the magnitude of the result is too large to be representable,
`exp' signals overflow.
- Function: double exp2 (double X)
- Function: float exp2f (float X)
- Function: long double exp2l (long double X)
These functions compute `2' raised to the power X.
Mathematically, `exp2 (x)' is the same as `exp (x * log (2))'.
- Function: double exp10 (double X)
- Function: float exp10f (float X)
- Function: long double exp10l (long double X)
- Function: double pow10 (double X)
- Function: float pow10f (float X)
- Function: long double pow10l (long double X)
These functions compute `10' raised to the power X.
Mathematically, `exp10 (x)' is the same as `exp (x * log (10))'.
These functions are GNU extensions. The name `exp10' is
preferred, since it is analogous to `exp' and `exp2'.
- Function: double log (double X)
- Function: float logf (float X)
- Function: long double logl (long double X)
These functions compute the natural logarithm of X. `exp (log
(X))' equals X, exactly in mathematics and approximately in C.
If X is negative, `log' signals a domain error. If X is zero, it
returns negative infinity; if X is too close to zero, it may
signal overflow.
- Function: double log10 (double X)
- Function: float log10f (float X)
- Function: long double log10l (long double X)
These functions return the base-10 logarithm of X. `log10 (X)'
equals `log (X) / log (10)'.
- Function: double log2 (double X)
- Function: float log2f (float X)
- Function: long double log2l (long double X)
These functions return the base-2 logarithm of X. `log2 (X)'
equals `log (X) / log (2)'.
- Function: double logb (double X)
- Function: float logbf (float X)
- Function: long double logbl (long double X)
These functions extract the exponent of X and return it as a
floating-point value. If `FLT_RADIX' is two, `logb' is equal to
`floor (log2 (x))', except it's probably faster.
If X is de-normalized, `logb' returns the exponent X would have if
it were normalized. If X is infinity (positive or negative),
`logb' returns oo. If X is zero, `logb' returns oo. It does not
signal.
- Function: int ilogb (double X)
- Function: int ilogbf (float X)
- Function: int ilogbl (long double X)
These functions are equivalent to the corresponding `logb'
functions except that they return signed integer values.
Since integers cannot represent infinity and NaN, `ilogb' instead
returns an integer that can't be the exponent of a normal floating-point
number. `math.h' defines constants so you can check for this.
- Macro: int FP_ILOGB0
`ilogb' returns this value if its argument is `0'. The numeric
value is either `INT_MIN' or `-INT_MAX'.
This macro is defined in ISO C99.
- Macro: int FP_ILOGBNAN
`ilogb' returns this value if its argument is `NaN'. The numeric
value is either `INT_MIN' or `INT_MAX'.
This macro is defined in ISO C99.
These values are system specific. They might even be the same. The
proper way to test the result of `ilogb' is as follows:
i = ilogb (f);
if (i == FP_ILOGB0 || i == FP_ILOGBNAN)
{
if (isnan (f))
{
/* Handle NaN. */
}
else if (f == 0.0)
{
/* Handle 0.0. */
}
else
{
/* Some other value with large exponent,
perhaps +Inf. */
}
}
- Function: double pow (double BASE, double POWER)
- Function: float powf (float BASE, float POWER)
- Function: long double powl (long double BASE, long double POWER)
These are general exponentiation functions, returning BASE raised
to POWER.
Mathematically, `pow' would return a complex number when BASE is
negative and POWER is not an integral value. `pow' can't do that,
so instead it signals a domain error. `pow' may also underflow or
overflow the destination type.
- Function: double sqrt (double X)
- Function: float sqrtf (float X)
- Function: long double sqrtl (long double X)
These functions return the nonnegative square root of X.
If X is negative, `sqrt' signals a domain error. Mathematically,
it should return a complex number.
- Function: double cbrt (double X)
- Function: float cbrtf (float X)
- Function: long double cbrtl (long double X)
These functions return the cube root of X. They cannot fail;
every representable real value has a representable real cube root.
- Function: double hypot (double X, double Y)
- Function: float hypotf (float X, float Y)
- Function: long double hypotl (long double X, long double Y)
These functions return `sqrt (X*X + Y*Y)'. This is the length of
the hypotenuse of a right triangle with sides of length X and Y,
or the distance of the point (X, Y) from the origin. Using this
function instead of the direct formula is wise, since the error is
much smaller. See also the function `cabs' in *Note Absolute
Value::.
- Function: double expm1 (double X)
- Function: float expm1f (float X)
- Function: long double expm1l (long double X)
These functions return a value equivalent to `exp (X) - 1'. They
are computed in a way that is accurate even if X is near zero--a
case where `exp (X) - 1' would be inaccurate owing to subtraction
of two numbers that are nearly equal.
- Function: double log1p (double X)
- Function: float log1pf (float X)
- Function: long double log1pl (long double X)
These functions returns a value equivalent to `log (1 + X)'. They
are computed in a way that is accurate even if X is near zero.
ISO C99 defines complex variants of some of the exponentiation and
logarithm functions.
- Function: complex double cexp (complex double Z)
- Function: complex float cexpf (complex float Z)
- Function: complex long double cexpl (complex long double Z)
These functions return `e' (the base of natural logarithms) raised
to the power of Z. Mathematically, this corresponds to the value
exp (z) = exp (creal (z)) * (cos (cimag (z)) + I * sin (cimag (z)))
- Function: complex double clog (complex double Z)
- Function: complex float clogf (complex float Z)
- Function: complex long double clogl (complex long double Z)
These functions return the natural logarithm of Z.
Mathematically, this corresponds to the value
log (z) = log (cabs (z)) + I * carg (z)
`clog' has a pole at 0, and will signal overflow if Z equals or is
very close to 0. It is well-defined for all other values of Z.
- Function: complex double clog10 (complex double Z)
- Function: complex float clog10f (complex float Z)
- Function: complex long double clog10l (complex long double Z)
These functions return the base 10 logarithm of the complex value
Z. Mathematically, this corresponds to the value
log (z) = log10 (cabs (z)) + I * carg (z)
These functions are GNU extensions.
- Function: complex double csqrt (complex double Z)
- Function: complex float csqrtf (complex float Z)
- Function: complex long double csqrtl (complex long double Z)
These functions return the complex square root of the argument Z.
Unlike the real-valued functions, they are defined for all values
of Z.
- Function: complex double cpow (complex double BASE, complex double
POWER)
- Function: complex float cpowf (complex float BASE, complex float
POWER)
- Function: complex long double cpowl (complex long double BASE,
complex long double POWER)
These functions return BASE raised to the power of POWER. This is
equivalent to `cexp (y * clog (x))'
File: libc.info, Node: Hyperbolic Functions, Next: Special Functions, Prev: Exponents and Logarithms, Up: Mathematics
Hyperbolic Functions
====================
The functions in this section are related to the exponential
functions; see *Note Exponents and Logarithms::.
- Function: double sinh (double X)
- Function: float sinhf (float X)
- Function: long double sinhl (long double X)
These functions return the hyperbolic sine of X, defined
mathematically as `(exp (X) - exp (-X)) / 2'. They may signal
overflow if X is too large.
- Function: double cosh (double X)
- Function: float coshf (float X)
- Function: long double coshl (long double X)
These function return the hyperbolic cosine of X, defined
mathematically as `(exp (X) + exp (-X)) / 2'. They may signal
overflow if X is too large.
- Function: double tanh (double X)
- Function: float tanhf (float X)
- Function: long double tanhl (long double X)
These functions return the hyperbolic tangent of X, defined
mathematically as `sinh (X) / cosh (X)'. They may signal overflow
if X is too large.
There are counterparts for the hyperbolic functions which take
complex arguments.
- Function: complex double csinh (complex double Z)
- Function: complex float csinhf (complex float Z)
- Function: complex long double csinhl (complex long double Z)
These functions return the complex hyperbolic sine of Z, defined
mathematically as `(exp (Z) - exp (-Z)) / 2'.
- Function: complex double ccosh (complex double Z)
- Function: complex float ccoshf (complex float Z)
- Function: complex long double ccoshl (complex long double Z)
These functions return the complex hyperbolic cosine of Z, defined
mathematically as `(exp (Z) + exp (-Z)) / 2'.
- Function: complex double ctanh (complex double Z)
- Function: complex float ctanhf (complex float Z)
- Function: complex long double ctanhl (complex long double Z)
These functions return the complex hyperbolic tangent of Z,
defined mathematically as `csinh (Z) / ccosh (Z)'.
- Function: double asinh (double X)
- Function: float asinhf (float X)
- Function: long double asinhl (long double X)
These functions return the inverse hyperbolic sine of X--the value
whose hyperbolic sine is X.
- Function: double acosh (double X)
- Function: float acoshf (float X)
- Function: long double acoshl (long double X)
These functions return the inverse hyperbolic cosine of X--the
value whose hyperbolic cosine is X. If X is less than `1',
`acosh' signals a domain error.
- Function: double atanh (double X)
- Function: float atanhf (float X)
- Function: long double atanhl (long double X)
These functions return the inverse hyperbolic tangent of X--the
value whose hyperbolic tangent is X. If the absolute value of X
is greater than `1', `atanh' signals a domain error; if it is
equal to 1, `atanh' returns infinity.
- Function: complex double casinh (complex double Z)
- Function: complex float casinhf (complex float Z)
- Function: complex long double casinhl (complex long double Z)
These functions return the inverse complex hyperbolic sine of
Z--the value whose complex hyperbolic sine is Z.
- Function: complex double cacosh (complex double Z)
- Function: complex float cacoshf (complex float Z)
- Function: complex long double cacoshl (complex long double Z)
These functions return the inverse complex hyperbolic cosine of
Z--the value whose complex hyperbolic cosine is Z. Unlike the
real-valued functions, there are no restrictions on the value of Z.
- Function: complex double catanh (complex double Z)
- Function: complex float catanhf (complex float Z)
- Function: complex long double catanhl (complex long double Z)
These functions return the inverse complex hyperbolic tangent of
Z--the value whose complex hyperbolic tangent is Z. Unlike the
real-valued functions, there are no restrictions on the value of Z.
File: libc.info, Node: Special Functions, Next: Errors in Math Functions, Prev: Hyperbolic Functions, Up: Mathematics
Special Functions
=================
These are some more exotic mathematical functions which are sometimes
useful. Currently they only have real-valued versions.
- Function: double erf (double X)
- Function: float erff (float X)
- Function: long double erfl (long double X)
`erf' returns the error function of X. The error function is
defined as
erf (x) = 2/sqrt(pi) * integral from 0 to x of exp(-t^2) dt
- Function: double erfc (double X)
- Function: float erfcf (float X)
- Function: long double erfcl (long double X)
`erfc' returns `1.0 - erf(X)', but computed in a fashion that
avoids round-off error when X is large.
- Function: double lgamma (double X)
- Function: float lgammaf (float X)
- Function: long double lgammal (long double X)
`lgamma' returns the natural logarithm of the absolute value of
the gamma function of X. The gamma function is defined as
gamma (x) = integral from 0 to oo of t^(x-1) e^-t dt
The sign of the gamma function is stored in the global variable
SIGNGAM, which is declared in `math.h'. It is `1' if the
intermediate result was positive or zero, or `-1' if it was
negative.
To compute the real gamma function you can use the `tgamma'
function or you can compute the values as follows:
lgam = lgamma(x);
gam = signgam*exp(lgam);
The gamma function has singularities at the non-positive integers.
`lgamma' will raise the zero divide exception if evaluated at a
singularity.
- Function: double lgamma_r (double X, int *SIGNP)
- Function: float lgammaf_r (float X, int *SIGNP)
- Function: long double lgammal_r (long double X, int *SIGNP)
`lgamma_r' is just like `lgamma', but it stores the sign of the
intermediate result in the variable pointed to by SIGNP instead of
in the SIGNGAM global. This means it is reentrant.
- Function: double gamma (double X)
- Function: float gammaf (float X)
- Function: long double gammal (long double X)
These functions exist for compatibility reasons. They are
equivalent to `lgamma' etc. It is better to use `lgamma' since
for one the name reflects better the actual computation, moreover
`lgamma' is standardized in ISO C99 while `gamma' is not.
- Function: double tgamma (double X)
- Function: float tgammaf (float X)
- Function: long double tgammal (long double X)
`tgamma' applies the gamma function to X. The gamma function is
defined as
gamma (x) = integral from 0 to oo of t^(x-1) e^-t dt
This function was introduced in ISO C99.
- Function: double j0 (double X)
- Function: float j0f (float X)
- Function: long double j0l (long double X)
`j0' returns the Bessel function of the first kind of order 0 of
X. It may signal underflow if X is too large.
- Function: double j1 (double X)
- Function: float j1f (float X)
- Function: long double j1l (long double X)
`j1' returns the Bessel function of the first kind of order 1 of
X. It may signal underflow if X is too large.
- Function: double jn (int n, double X)
- Function: float jnf (int n, float X)
- Function: long double jnl (int n, long double X)
`jn' returns the Bessel function of the first kind of order N of
X. It may signal underflow if X is too large.
- Function: double y0 (double X)
- Function: float y0f (float X)
- Function: long double y0l (long double X)
`y0' returns the Bessel function of the second kind of order 0 of
X. It may signal underflow if X is too large. If X is negative,
`y0' signals a domain error; if it is zero, `y0' signals overflow
and returns -oo.
- Function: double y1 (double X)
- Function: float y1f (float X)
- Function: long double y1l (long double X)
`y1' returns the Bessel function of the second kind of order 1 of
X. It may signal underflow if X is too large. If X is negative,
`y1' signals a domain error; if it is zero, `y1' signals overflow
and returns -oo.
- Function: double yn (int n, double X)
- Function: float ynf (int n, float X)
- Function: long double ynl (int n, long double X)
`yn' returns the Bessel function of the second kind of order N of
X. It may signal underflow if X is too large. If X is negative,
`yn' signals a domain error; if it is zero, `yn' signals overflow
and returns -oo.